This means, of course, that the same morpheme may have different phonological structures depending on the neighbouring morphemes. They are found predominantly, though not exclusively, before front vowels; however, since the plain velars, too, can be found before front vowels, they have to be regarded as being phonemically distinct from each other. The early history of the discipline is summarized in Kilbury , while Hockett As it happens, this is not the case. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the prior permission in writing of Oxford University Press, or as expressly permitted by law, or under terms agreed with the appropriate reprographics rights organization. Additionally, some ideas, while well entrenched with GP thinking, need not necessarily be obvious to followers of other frameworks, hence spelling out some details may remove misunderstandings. The facts of standard Polish but not necessarily all regional dialects appear to indicate that this situation is eschewed.

It seems that this solution can be extended to all instances of non-sharing [e] in For some technical discussion see Ingleby and Brockhaus In this way the net gain of four contrastive segments can be effected. Additionally, some ideas, while well entrenched with GP thinking, need not necessarily be obvious to followers of other frameworks, hence spelling out some details may remove misunderstandings. The conclusion comes as no surprise in view of the depalatalization constraint which holds for 23b. While representationally different, the two forms are pronounced in the same way.

The question of whether some segments constitute one or more phonemes, in other words, whether they are in some sense derived, is an outgrowth of the typical preoccupation with paradigmatic relations, and the concomitant goal of reducing the number of contrastive units, a preoccupation that characterises much of the phonological tradition, past and present.

The glide is impossible before [i] in word-initial position, a fact which can hardly be a coincidence. In this sense, somewhat unexpectedly, the necessary presence of a palato-velar before a high front vowel is just another aspect of the presence of initial [je].

Another morphological category reviewed morphophonologically is the imperative, which forms part of the complex verbal system. Is this an accident? A striking fact about the Polish nasal vowels is the total absence of these nuclei in absolute initial position of the word.

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The simple non-palatalized consonants were regarded as basic or appearing in underlying representations. As the last example of 90 and last two examples of 89 show, this is not the case: The structuralist mmamrota to phonology in most of its variants is predominantly paradigmatic. The controversial problem areas within the broadly understood generative paradigm include the following four issues. Baudouin de Courtenay regarded them as a single phoneme, a view that dominated the Smao phonological studies till about the middle of the twentieth century.


All generative analyses of Polish assume, in contradistinction to the predominant structuralist view, that there are two phonological high unrounded segments: This question, we submit, lies outside the domain of phonology proper. Thus the phonetic inaudibility of some property does not indicate its absence; or the phonetic identity of two forms does not necessarily imply their linguistic identity. Steffen-Batogowa and Dukiewicz offer descriptions with a heavy phonetic bias but little attention is paid to systematizing the intonational contours from the point of view of their linguistic relevance.

We shall try to study these questions in a framework where individual segments play a far less important role than was the case in either classical structuralism or classical generativism.

For this reason we avoid theoretical speculations which a purely theoretical study would encourage, although a certain amount of general discussion is unavoidable. Intonation remains the least adequately described aspect of spoken Polish.

The Phonology of Polish (The Phonology of the World’s Languages)

A few constraints are put forward which control the observed phonological behaviour. Consider the examples in 31where words in the left-hand column ending in -a [a] represent the nominative feminine singular, while those in the right-hand column are the same adjectives in the masculine singular.

In any event, the unity of the alternation would be destroyed even though in other ways— morpho phonologically, grammatically, and even lexically, the two groups behave identically. This follows from the phonological regularities of Empty Heads and I-alignment discussed in the earlier part of this chapter.

Consider alternations of plain velars with palato-velars where the latter occur before the ending -em [em] of the instrumental singular masculine and neuter 39a and also before the adjectival -e [e] of the nominative plural nonmasculine mamrkta 39b.

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Thus we have seen that Polish has two constraints Empty Heads, I-alignment which account for the co-occurrence of palato-velars and front vowels. Here are the possible representations of the adjectives: While there is no dearth of examples involving the oral vowel after a palato-velar stop 58athose involving the nasal ones are less frequent.

This mamrita another of the set of constraints specifying phonological properties of elements in Polish.

The appearance of palato-velars is then strictly determined phonologically. When a short cut will be required we will talk of palatalized consonants but it should be kept in mind that this is a phonological and morpho phono logical rather than a phonetic statement.


Polish does supply instances of such a sequence. The preceding discussion has outlined problem areas in a general and deliberately inconclusive way.

The same procedure could not be taken with respect to the front mid vowel. In a way which is hardly questionable, phonological units cannot be read off from the phonetic. Traditionally, front vowels were viewed as palatalization triggers, so there was a problem what to do with those front nuclei which fail to palatalize or which appear after a non-palatalized consonants.

This takes either the -o [O] or the -e [e] endings: We return to this issue presently. The elemental representations of vowels and consonants viewed as syntagmatic units and involved in the phonological palatalization are investigated.

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Determining the pattern 5. The two possibilities illustrated in 37 arouse no strong feelings. The view of phonology that GP promotes is at odds mamrpta much of the phonological tradition also because it does not recognize a strict division between phonetics and phonology as commonly understood.

Let us start by looking at the plain spirant.

In what follows we shall concentrate on the voiceless spirant only. The above interpretation is not the only structural effort attempting to come to grips with the palatalized labial complex. No doubt I will have reasons to regret my obduracy.

True palatalization is evinced in what we have called the labial group, which also comprises the coronal lateral and nasal. It must be stressed that the analysis, as it stands, provides a simple and natural account of the appearance of palatalized labials. It was attempted in its most ambitious version only once when Lightner set out to eliminate as much allomorphy as possible: A description of the phonology of a single language is not ammrota place for excessive theoretical speculation, but theoretical issues cannot be avoided if a description is to go beyond whimsically garnered lists of jamrota.

In this book we shall make extensive use of empty nuclei; it should be noted, however, that empty onsets are also found in Polish although their role in the phonology of the language is limited. The analysis of palatalization along the lines presented here founders in an interesting way.

Apart from the class of palatalized consonants, there is another group which behaves in the same way although its members cannot be characterized as palatalized. There are more complications to which we return below.