Representative major and trace element analyses of northern Puna early Neogene magmatic rocks. These are interpreted as restitic phases derived from partial melting of assimilated crustal rocks. This information is at present limited by the lack of detailed basement studies in the northern Puna and, more fundamentally, by a lack of deep exposures and paucity of mantle-derived rocks. The felsic lower-crustal granulites from the Salta Rift reported by Lucassen et al. Nevertheless, existing information allows some useful constraints to be made, as follows:. The compositions of these rocks suggest that the mantle source was isotopically depleted at the beginning of the Andean orogenic cycle see Fig.

Partition coefficients for andesites and basalts. Four Seasons — Comedy 7. F , fraction of liquid remaining. Petrographic and geochemical results obtained may be briefly summarized as follows. Small millimetre-sized clots of the two or three dominant mineral phases in lavas and pumices are interpreted as crystal accumulation textures Table 2. Al-Nassabeen Al-Thalatha min Comedy 5.

Nomenclature as in Table 3 ; n. This sequence of mixed pyroclastic and reworked volcanic rocks is located SW of the Laguna de Pozuelos basin Fig.

The study area is outlined by the box. In these energy-constrained AFC models EC-AFCassimilation is assumed to occur only via partial melts of the wallrocks, and therefore the r parameter depends on the solidus temperature and melt productivity in the wallrocks. This article needs to be updated. The third volcanic phase 10—4 Ma overlaps with the Quechua phase, and is dominated by undeformed, large-volume ignimbrites Fig.

The AFC solutions for La, Nd, Yb, Ba and Rb match or slightly exceed observed values regardless of whether granulitic or granitic assimilants are assumed see Table 12 but the model Sr concentrations are too low if granite is used as the assimilant except for Casa Colorada, which has very low Sr. Finally, we wish to thank the people from the Puna of Jujuy for their hospitality, especially the personnel and teachers of many rural schools.

Neither the exposed Palaeozoic felsic basement nor the lower-crustal granulites known from xenolith suites are compositionally suitable as protoliths for the UOLM and MM magmas.

Reviews by Shan de Silva, Todd Feeley and Chris Nye, as well as comments and editorial suggestions by Marjorie Wilson, highly improved the quality of the original manuscript. Nevertheless, existing information allows some useful constraints to be made, as follows:. Amphibole in the UOLM centres classifies as tschermakite to Mg-hornblende and commonly displays disequilibrium textures. These are dacitic to rhyolitic in composition and are similar in many respects to the UOLM-2 group.


The main petrographic difference shown by andesitic lavas in Pirurayo and El Morro is the relative abundance of mineral mafic phases, amphiboles and pyroxenes being more abundant than biotite. Simple mixing of basaltic and crustal components does not fit the observed data. Like the UOLM-1 solutions, bulk D values calculated for fractionation at 7 kbar give the best fit to data overall.

A full comparison of the two methods is beyond the scope of this paper and may not be meaningful for the northern Puna example because the EC-AFC models require constraints on melt productivity and extraction for the crustal component, and these are highly uncertain.

Sabaya Season One

Inclusions of oval or blocky holocrystalline quartz-dioritic to tonalitic enclaves diameter 15—2 cm are also common. Will they be able to save their relationships?

The latter values are similar to reported values for dacitic to rhyolitic Upper Miocene—Pliocene ignimbrites Ort et al. Lead isotope analyses were performed on a Finnigan MAT mass spectometer using static multicollection. The greatest abundance of pyroclastic material is restricted to exposures to the west of the Pan de Azucar mine Fig.

LM, unknown ages assumed to be Lower Miocene. Representative major and trace element analyses of northern Puna early Neogene magmatic rocks. D values used are given in Appendix B see text. Crystal contents range from 5 to 47 vol.

The age of these later eruptions overlaps somewhat with the second volcanic phase Coira et al. Plagioclase in cumulate clots and tonalitic inclusions is significantly richer in the anorthite component Fig. The data are used to identify potential magma source components within the mantle and crust.

Sr and Nd were separated and purified using cation-exchange chromatography. Filled wpisode indicate core compositions; open symbols represent rims.

This centre has not been dated, but a number of factors, including sabbaya degree of erosion than the Aguiliri dacitic domes, and its overall geochemical characteristics, suggest the El Morro centre has closer affinities with magmatic rocks of the first phase rather than the second.

Laurentian—Gondwanan Connections before Pangea. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. Dpisode unpublished data, As discussed in the modelling section below, the incompatible behaviour of Sr in this case can be explained by suppressed fractionation of plagioclase as a result of a higher pressure of crystallization.


X, xenocrysts; RI, relict inclusions. Both the felsic eoisode lower-crust and granite mid- to upper-crust compositions yield similar solutions Table 11models A—C. Five different girls live together. Their radiogenic isotopic ratios are intermediate between those of UOLM-1 and As in the Altiplano, the end of the Quechua phase at 8 Ma in the Puna is marked by changes in strain directions and deformational behaviour of the upper—middle crust, passing from a compressional regime into one that was dominated by strike-slip or extensional faulting Cladouhos et al.

The centre forms a cluster of one dacite stock and three dacitic lava domes, which intruded basement and Tertiary sediments near the Chile—Argentina border at Jama.

On their illegal way to America, survivors of a sinking ship are forced to work together in order to survive on an deserted island and to elect a leader as the President of island. As for the major elements, the trace element characteristics of the early Neogene volcanic rocks in the northern Puna are typical of Andean back-arc magmatism see Kay et al.

Pan de Azucar ore data Zentilli et al. Citing articles via Web of Science Operating conditions were 50 kV and 45 mA. Ground and homogenized samples were fused with lithium tetraborate as a flux for major element analyses.

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Neogene basalts are exceedingly rare in the Central Volcanic Zone and there is little direct evidence available to assess the composition of the mantle component involved in magma genesis.

Geochemical and isotopic modelling favor hybridization of arc magmas in the lower crust, and are consistent with a sabya felsic composition of the lower crust suggested by Lucassen et al.

In a few of the cases, at the end of the episode, the convicted are shown sitting with handcuffs on if they are still in jail. Volcanism in the period from 26 to 18 Ma shows a characteristic distribution.