The 2nd-century Chinese inventor Ding Huan of the Han Dynasty invented a fan for air conditioning, with seven wheels 3 m in diameter. Furthermore, a post-binarist approach to African women’s writing can provide useful insights into the contingent nature of the location s of power in those texts and how subjects are positioned in relation to those locations. London Terrace and the intersection of 10th Avenue and West 23rd Street. Like Ojo-Ade and Mazrui before me, I have had my own share of acerbic recrimination since I began to make public interventions in African feminist discourse in the mids. Retrieved from ” https: Can we trace a women’s African literary history in the two brief decades that have elapsed since Nwapa

The social problems of the areas workers provoked John Lovejoy Elliot to form the Hudson Guild in , one of the first settlement houses — private organizations designed to provide social services. The situation has been created in which every African essay or critical book must seek the blessing of certain stock Western authorities before being reckoned with. I thus agree with cultural theorist Tejumola Olaniyan, when he posits that: He got his fingers badly burnt and was attacked by Judith 47 Butler, V. If it is true, as Ngugi affirms, that American modernity cannot be extricated from the story of African slavery, it is no less true that oo American modernity is also irrevocably linked to the holocaust visited on the Native Indians. Some of these classes and groups such as the lesser rural gentry, impoverished landlords, rich peasants and upper-middle peasants who ‘naturally’ ranked among the ‘people’ and the ‘subaltern’, could under certain circumstances act for the ‘elite’, as explained above, and therefore be classified as such in some local or regional situations. And the critics who emerged to elaborate a critical tradition for the emergent African literatures in the sixties were mostly Western critics using necessarily Eurocentric critical tools.

During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. He travelled all the way from Oregon to attend my defense as a testimony of our bond.

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In Chapter Four, I turn my attention to the ways in which three novels, Abibatou Traore’s Sidagamie, Fatou Ke’ita’s Rebelle and Regina Yaou’s Le prix de la revoke, successfully deploy what Mary Kolawole calls “positive heroinism”, to create subaltern female subjects who rise above their debilitating conditions to achieve a socio-political revolution in every sense of that word. The early institution also had a reading room open day and night, and a new four-year nighttime engineering college for men.

Consequently, modern African Studies as an academic field straddling disciplines like literature, political science, philosophy, sociology, anthropology and history is essentially an invention of the West.

Their heady rejection of every Western theoretical contribution to the understanding of African literatures was amplified by Udenta Udenta in his Revolutionary Aesthetics and the African Literary Process and Niyi Osundare in his powerful monograph, African Literature and the Crisis of Post-Structuralist Theorizing Oyewumi sums up the situation thus: Chanin School of Architecture, the School of Art, and it offers undergraduate and masters degree programs exclusively in the fields of architecture, fine arts, and engineering.

The school building, meanwhile, deteriorated over the years. In its place was constructed a new, “civilized” public sphere within which all the structures and institutions of power, agency and upward social mobility were located.


UBC Theses and Dissertations.

I am also indebted to Euphrates Gobina. On July 4, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power. It was the first structure in New York City to feature rolled-iron I-beams for structural support, Petersen patented a fire-resistant hollow brick tile he used in the buildings construction 8.

African females were colonized by Europeans as Africans and as African women. Like all colonial powers, the British – I add the French and the Portuguese -worked with a single model of customary authority in precolonial Africa. The rational thinking, Cartesian individual is at the core of the construction of subjectivity in the West.

This was largely a conceptual phase, in which critics worked to establish appropriate critical concepts for apprehending the experiences of African women. Roy Harvey Pearce proves this point beyond doubt in his treatise on Native Indian history, Savagism and Civilization This historicist approach resulted in a situation in which every essay obeyed seemingly pre-determined, formulaic structural rules5.

The selected novels will consequently be read as fictional extensions of African feminist theory, in line with Julianah Nfah-Abbenyi’s exhortation to read African female novels as “fictionalized theory” or “theorized fiction”.

What educational, marital, and familial circumstances foster and thwart writing by African women? Catherine of BraganzaQueen of England. InKatherine Frank raised a few questions which, in her opinion, ought to determine the nature, scope and strategies of a feminist approach to the criticism of the African novel.

As banks were unwilling to provide loans to the cooperative, financing was provided by the Mutual Life Insurance Company, the cooperative is named after Sidney Hillman, founder and first president of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America.

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However, the initiative of transforming the term into a theoretical concept and investing it with latent ideological connotations belongs to the Italian Marxist thinker, Antonio Gramsci. The sexist categorization of some professions as feminine, oplygamique inferior, was also largely unknown in several pre-colonial African societies where women and men alike indulged in such activities as farming and trading.

Now this worlding actually is also a texting, a textualising, a making into art, a making into an object to be understood26 emphasis added This statement sufficiently shows episoee Africa was not only invented by the West, it was also made into foyre object of epistemological inquiry, to be approached almost exclusively from the standpoint of Western-spawned discursive models. Katherine Frank, a prominent Western feminist critic of African literatures, has suggested that Feminism, by definition, is a profoundly individualistic philosophy: To conquer English may be to complete the process of making ourselves free.

He, along with Abraham Kazanwas a driving force of the cooperative housing movement in the United States. Ogundipe-Leslie also introduces here one of the reasons responsible for the discursive insurgency of Third World women against feminist discourses authorized by women of European descent.

There is no way of extricating it from colonialism8 6, emphases in the original Ngugi’s position can be read contrapuntally with that of Antonio Benitez-Rojo, who also examines how American modernity constituted itself through a prior subalternization and exclusion of certain segments of the society: Responding to Ernest Emenyonu’s charge several years ago that only African critics are equipped to engage in the criticism of African novels7 4, Bernth Lindfors asserted, among other things, that “any literature needs all the criticism it can get” Inconstruction was started on the citadel of Fort Amsterdam on Manhattan Island, later called New Amsterdam, the establishment of Fort Amsterdam at the southern tip of Manhattan Island is recognized as the birth of New York City.


Can African women’s struggle against patriarchal domination, as refracted in their fictional works, be read as insurgency?

Indeed, it is in Spivak’s work that the masculinized categories of ‘people’, ‘subaltern classes’ or ‘subaltern social groups’ preferred by her male colleagues are refigured as the ‘subaltern woman’. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives.


However, another hallmark of living is that it is nonprofit, so that the work is done at cost. What Garuba does in the fields of literature and culture, Mahmood Mamdani does in the field of political discourse. I am thus proposing a bicephalous second chapter offering, a hermeneutic critique of creative writing and a metacritical evaluation of the theoretical works of African feminists.

Whether she lived in the city or in the countryside, she was subject to the same process of generalized sexist subservience by the colonial regime. View from Midtown Manhattan facing south toward Lower Manhattan. This allows modernity to present itself not only as innocent but also as a force that wil l emancipate or redeem its victims from their guilt. The notion of essentialism is used advisedly here, because one cannot be too 13 circumspect in deploying it within the context of African discourse.

One positive legacy of such historicist critiques of the emergent body of African women’s writing in Africa and elsewhere was the development of certain key concepts that were to inflect the very nature of the entire field of criticism of African women’s writing. Gramsci’s project is to map out “methodological criteria” for studying the history of the subaltern classes. A l l have involved 82 amalgamations and suppressions”.

The selection also covers a geographical space which spreads from west to central Africa. By embarking on this course of political and pragmatic engagement, I am aligning myself with the tradition which makes African scholars eschew any critical approach that is socio-politically irrelevant.

Queens is the easternmost and largest in area of the five boroughs of New York City. Chapter One traces the emergence of African feminist discourses and accounts for why they depart theoretically from some versions of Western feminism.

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Franco Moretti has demonstrated how this axiom works in the field of literature. While it is true that contact with the West 16 cannot be said to be solely responsible for the introduction of sexism and an oppressive patriarchal ethos into African cultures, it is also true that colonialism inscribed hitherto unknown forms of sexism and male-centrism within the African worldview, thereby taking existing gender asymmetries to new heights.

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